Thursday, April 24, 2008

Optimising the NextWar loader - why Xml.Serialization is so slow

One of the core design goals of NextWar is that it should function much like a casual game. That means that it needs to satisfy a some criteria for what a user should expect from a casual game. One of these criteria is that it must start and load quickly. Long load times prohibit the "just start and play" factor that you should be able to expect from a casual game.

This was a problem I initially encountered with NextWar. NextWar was designed to be incredibly data-driven. One of the earliest design choices I made was to use an XML-based content definition system for definition practically every aspect of the game. XML-based approaches have been very successful in other games, such as Command and Conquer 3 and Civilization 4. XML is particularly convenient for me because I'm using C# - and as such have access to the massive .NET BCL. One of the most useful set of classes I've found were in Xml.Serialization. Xml.Serialization has the ability to automatically load an XML file and deserialise it into a user-defined class. It also operates in reverse; it can serialise any user type into an XML format. This is useful for things like settings and save games.

When I wrote SCALE, one of the major challenges I faced was this same issue of deserialisation - once I got the data from the file, how did I get it into the data structure? C++ has no automated facilities for this - in the end I resorted to an incredibly long and verbose manual method of copying raw data into specified data members.

Using the power of bytecode, .NET is able to automate the entire process. Seriously, deserialising an XML file takes about 10 lines of code. But, like all things, there is a price to pay for this convenience. Even though I have a very small amount of data (currently about 125KB of XML data), parsing and deserialisation took about 4.5 seconds on a relatively high end 2.8ghz Core 2 Duo. This was insanity - and I knew in advance that I was going to have a LOT more than 125kb of XML by the time I finished the game. The problem was also that all the time was spent in the core .NET libraries themselves - profiling revealed that my code was lightning-fast. The culprit was, unexpectedly enough, Xml.Serialization.

After a lot of in-depth research into the issue, what makes Xml.Serialization so damn slow? The main reason has nothing to do with data conversions, or parsing, or anything like that. The reason is that Xml.Serialization needs to go through a long (and extremely expensive) process to generate the necessary metadata to load the data into your class.

Here's what Xml.Serialization does. It uses the .NET reflection libraries (which, by themselves, are already incredibly slow) to look into the assembly bytecode for the class that you're trying to deserialise. Then, it generates new bytecode from this class so that it can serialise/deserialise each of the data members. In short, it generates a serialiser or deserialiser class on the fly. Once it generates the bytecode for the class, it then compiles that bytecode into a DLL assembly, which is then loaded by the .NET runtime. The .NET JIT1 (just-in-time) compiler then compiles this code and executes it.

All of this is, understandably, extremely slow. Generating an assembly like this could take hundreds of milliseconds for each type. And I know that Xml.Serialization is actually doing this; the Visual Studio debugger confirmed it. But what to do about it?

Well, as it turns out, Microsoft provides a tool with the Visual Studio SDK called SGEN. SGEN does exactly what Xml.Serialization does - except that instead of loading and using the generated DLL, it saves it to file. Thus, it is a tool to pre-generate the serialisers/deserialisers into a DLL which can then be loaded and used directly, rather than letting Xml.Serialization do it at load time.

After a bit of fiddling, I got SGEN to work, and I linked my program against it to use the deserialisers. And lo and behold, my load time was cut in half. Deserialising XML files is now lighting fast, thanks to this handy little tool.


1 It's a common misconception that .NET code is bytecode-interpreted. Such a thing might be fine for a simple scripting language, but would be far too slow for something like .NET. Rather, the .NET runtime includes a Just-In-Time compiler (often referred to as the "JIT"). When the program loads, the JIT reads the bytecode and dynamically compiles it into native assembly instructions. Then, this native assembly is executed directly by the CPU. The nature of the JIT, and the fact that it needs to be done at runtime, means that the assembly code will be nowhere near as fast as an off-line optimising C++ compiler, for example. The JIT is designed to run fast, but it's still not a good idea to be invoking it unless really needed. And in this case of Xml.Serialization, it was certainly not needed.

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